24/04/2016 11h43 - Updated 25/04/2016 07h21

Without money, Estados cortam 47% dos investimentos no primeiro bimestre

O resultado da paralisia é um amontoado de obras interrompidas, sem previsão para serem concluídas.
Photo: reproduction
Photo: reproduction

A penúria enfrentada pelos Estados era uma crise anunciada. Com uma estrutura inchada pelo aumento da dívida e crescimento das despesas com pessoal, as receitas tinham de ser crescentes para fechar a conta. A recessão econômica, However, mudou esse roteiro e colocou as finanças estaduais numa rota trágica. Today, sem dinheiro até para pagar o funcionalismo público, a alternativa de boa parte dos governadores tem sido sacrificar os investimentos. Só no primeiro bimestre deste ano os recursos aplicados caíram 47% about 2015, R $ 2,1 billion to R $ 1,1 billion.

O resultado da paralisia dos Estados é um amontoado de obras interrompidas em todo o Brasil, sem previsão para serem concluídas. São projetos de várias áreas: de metrô a hospitais, de estradas a creches, de esgoto a escolas. Algumas foram interrompidas no meio e viraram grandes esqueletos; outras estão suspensas até a situação melhorar. E há ainda aquelas que estão sendo tocadas, mas num ritmo lento, com cronogramas a perder de vista.

O investimento foi a grande variável de ajuste das contas públicas”, diz o consultor econômico do Senado, Pedro Jucá Maciel, responsável pelo levantamento do orçamento dos Estados, que considerou as despesas liquidadas (fase anterior ao pagamento) no primeiro bimestre. Jucá diz que a queda de quase metade dos investimentos foi surpreendente porque a base de comparação já era fraca.

According to the survey, o ranking dos maiores tombos de investimentos estaduais é liderado por Rio de Janeiro (94%), For (92%) e Goiás (90%). O Rio Grande do Sulque tem mostrado uma das faces mais perversas da crise, a falta de dinheiro para pagar os servidoressó não entrou nessa lista porque os investimentos do ano passado já haviam sofrido um corte drástico.

Outros Estados seguem o mesmo caminho. Houve aumento no Paraná e em Santa Catarina, embora tímidos para recuperar a defasagem de investimentos dos Estados.

“From January 2015, fizemos um contingenciamento de 25% the budget, revisamos licitação em curso, renegociamos contratos e proibimos novas contratações”, diz o secretário da Fazenda do Paraná, Mauro Ricardo Costa.

A crise fiscal paranaense se tornou emblemática pelo confronto entre professores e a Polícia Militar durante votação do projeto que alterava o regime previdenciário dos servidores estaduais. “O ajuste custou muito à popularidade do governador (Beto Richa, PSDB). Mas conseguimos um superávit de R$ 2,5 billion in 2015 e voltamos a investir neste ano”, says Secretary.

Origem do problema
A situação crítica das finanças estaduais tem origem na forte queda da arrecadação, sobretudo do ICMSo principal imposto estadual -, e pelo excesso de endividamento. Between 2012 e 2015, a União estimulou os governos estaduais a se endividarem. Mesmo Estados com baixa capacidade de tomar empréstimos receberam aval da União para novos empréstimos.

Os Estados já estavam muito endividados. Quando o governo Dilma liberou crédito de forma indiscriminada só antecipou e agravou a crise. A depressão atual, obviously, afetou sobremaneira essa situação”, diz o professor do Instituto Brasiliense de Direito Público (IDP), José Roberto Afonso, também pesquisador do Instituto Brasileiro de Economia da Fundação Getúlio Vargas (Ibra / FGV).

Uma parte da piora das finanças estaduais também se deve ao recuo do Fundo de Participação dos Estados (FPU). In the first quarter, os repasses do governo federal caíram 4,9% over the same period 2015. In March, However, o tombo foi de 39% comparado ao mês anterior.

In recent weeks, a crise do endividamento dos Estados foi parar no Judiciário. Nove Estados conseguiram liminares no Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) para alterar a metodologia de cálculo das dívidas estaduais de juros compostos para simples. O governo federal tenta reverter a decisão.

Segundo cálculos da equipe econômica, a mudança na metodologia deverá reduzir em R$ 300 bilhões o tamanho da dívida dos governadores. Muitos Estados deixariam de ser devedores e passariam a ser credores da União.

Source: Look

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