Research to eliminate malaria local transmission in the AmazonSince 2013 the Jau National Park, located in the Amazon, not reported cases of malaria local transmission.
The Jaú National Park, located in the Amazon, not reported cases of malaria local transmission from 2013, thanks to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz project (IOC / Fiocruz), blessed, in 2017, the Pan American Health Organization World Health Organization (Opas / WHO) with the Champions prize Malaria in the Americas.
For the project coordinator and researcher at the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases IOC, Simone Ladeia Andrade, the award granted by PAHO encourages academia to develop applied research projects to assist disease control programs of the Ministry of Health.
"Another thing is that this work that has been done for years is to stimulate the state government to strive to control malaria in urban areas", the researcher said the Agency Brazil. For her, this is important because the few cases reported last year in the park were imported malaria in urban centers. There are no more cases of local transmission.
Simone said, in 2013, It was the last case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, parasite that causes the disease with increased risk of worsening. "From there to here, there were isolated cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria, from imported cases of cities. At the end of 2017, Simone said that there were few instances because people who live in the park, in secluded area in the forest, They traveled to the county seat, in urban areas.
"They got malaria there and returned to the park. imported cases of the city ", assured. Said, still, endemic to the park no longer exists. "No more transmission".
The work began with the doctoral thesis of Simone. The first time she visited the Jau National Park region was 2002/2003, why, in the early 2000, there was the largest non-indigenous malaria focus of the Black River basin, in the northern Amazon.
Fourteen communities are located in the park, total area larger than Sergipe. Simone made three trips to the region to immunity testing with the local population. The thesis ended up winning the Capes Award [Higher Education Personnel Improvement Coordination], considered the most important country in the genre.
When he entered the contest by Fiocruz, in 2008, she proposed the realization of a longitudinal study to evaluate disease risk, develop symptoms, see immunity in the population, risk of anemia and control measures.
"I wanted to give an applied research response, operational ", he explained. The project was initiated in 2009 and had the support of the National Scientific and Technological Development Council (CNPq).
Every quarter, the researcher went to the park to do interviews and physical examinations in the population. By collecting blood, They were made malaria tests. Given or positive diagnosis, people were treated contaminated. All part of Entomology [branch of zoology that studies insects] it was studied. The exams were done every three months in all people with or without symptoms. Thereby, the technique was the wiping area parasites.
After this work, at the end of the first year of the project, in 2009, malaria transmission had been reduced by 62%. "Only with these measures, because I was studying the dynamics of this mosquito population. It was part of a longitudinal study. It was pure research ", reveals.
The methodology required to conduct blood collection and treatment was wiping the area of parasite, which is isolated. No end of 2010, reduction [cases] rose to 95%. "From there to here, were few cases. The last case of falciparum [protozoan parasite] It was in 2013 ".
From 2014 Here, there have been no cases of Plasmodium vivax and falsiparum [protozoan parasite} isolated occurrences or small outbreaks have been registered, due to travel of people to the city. There was no local transmission, detailed Simone.
The author of the study stressed the support given to the project by the NGO (ONG) Core studies Catalunha da Amazonia of Catalonia (Neac) with the installation of microscopy centers and training residents in the diagnosis of malaria.
The qualification of Community microscopists was performed with theoretical and practical activities at each visit of the team to the park. Once formed, microscopists have joined the project, conducting an active search for infection each month, in between visits the research team along 2010, He informed the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.
Parasitic index, that involves the number of cases per thousand inhabitants and assesses the level of malaria transmission, It was from 850 in 2008, well above the level of high risk, which is above ten cases per thousand inhabitants. "There were communities of the area in which the index reached 1,7 one thousand", said Simone.
On the last visit to the park, she was pleased because he found a generation that did not know malaria. "It was very cool". The information collected will be used to build a database about the disease, which precede a statistical analysis. The next step will be to write an article about the research results for publication in a scientific journal.
The project involved the collaboration of experts Surveillance Foundation for Health of Barcelos, Municipal Barcelos Health, Amazon Central Laboratory, Dr Tropical Medicine Foundation. Heitor Vieira Dourado and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.
Malaria in the Americas
The Champions award Malaria in the Americas recognizes local or national initiatives that have shown success in preventing, control, elimination or prevention of reintroduction of malaria in communities, countries or the Americas.
In editing 2017, They were awarded, beyond the project Jau National Park (NPC) Amazon / Fiocruz, the Eirunepé programs - Chaos to Surveillance, the Municipal Health Secretariat of Eirunepé, Amazon municipality, e Binomial plan for malária elimination in Hispaniola Island – Ouanaminthe-Djabon, National control of Haiti Malaria Program, and the National Center for Control of Tropical Diseases of the Dominican Republic.