05/08/2016 11h37 - Actualizado 5/08/2016 11h37

La mitad de los recién nacidos no son amamantados en la primera hora de vida, dice UNICEF

Así que no reciben los nutrientes y anticuerpos y se ven privados de contacto físico con sus madres.
foto: reproducción
foto: reproducción

Aproximadamente 77 millones de recién nacidos no son amamantados en la primera hora de vida, de no recibir los nutrientes y anticuerpos y la privación de contacto físico con sus madres, según el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (Unicef). Esta primera cuerpo a cuerpo de contacto es esencial para protegerlos de enfermedades y para contribuir al éxito de la lactancia materna.

Francia Bégin, Asesor Principal de Nutrición de UNICEF, establece que si todos los bebés fueron alimentados sólo con leche materna desde el momento de su nacimiento hasta los seis meses de edad, más que 800 miles de vidas se salvarían cada año.

Cuanto más se demora en el inicio de la lactancia materna, cuanto mayor es el riesgo de muerte durante el primer mes de vida. El retraso de la lactancia materna entre dos y 23 horas después del nacimiento se incrementa 40% el riesgo de muerte en el primer 28 días de vida. Atrasá-la por 24 horas o más aumenta este riesgo 80%.

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) recomienda que la lactancia materna todavía se inicia en la primera media hora después del nacimiento. Sin embargo, sólo la mitad de todos los recién nacidos en el mundo recibe los beneficios de la lactancia materna inmediata.

Según el Comité portuguesa manual de la lactancia materna para el UNICEF, la leche materna previene infecciones gastrointestinales, respiratorio y urinario, además de tener un efecto protector sobre las alergias. En cuanto a los beneficios para la madre, la lactancia materna ayuda a que el útero vuelva a su tamaño normal y reduce las probabilidades de cáncer de mama.

La recomendación de la OMS es que la lactancia materna es exclusiva al sexto mes y se extiende a la 2 años o más, ya con la introducción de los alimentos, como frutas, legumbres, verduras e carnes.

De acuerdo con UNICEF, pese a los esfuerzos, avances en la lactancia materna en la primera hora de vida ha sido lento. En el África subsahariana, por ejemplo, donde los menores de cinco años las tasas de mortalidad de cinco años son los más altos del mundo, la lactancia materna temprana aumentó sólo 10 puntos porcentuales desde el año 2000. En el sur de Asia, en donde la iniciación temprana de las tasas de lactancia se triplicó, paso 16% en 2000 para 45% en 2015, el aumento es lejos de ser suficiente: 21 millones de recién nacidos todavía tienen que esperar demasiado tiempo para ser amamantado.

Análisis de UNICEF muestra que las mujeres no están recibiendo la ayuda que necesitan para iniciar la lactancia inmediatamente después del nacimiento, incluso cuando un médico, enfermera o partera parto. En el Oriente Medio, África del Norte y Asia del Sur, por ejemplo, las mujeres que tienen hijos con la ayuda de una partera calificada son menos propensos a iniciar la lactancia durante la primera hora después del nacimiento en comparación con aquellos que dan a luz con la ayuda de parteras no cualificados o familiares.

Otra razón que dificulta la lactancia materna temprana es la costumbre de los bebés de alimentación con otros líquidos o alimentos. En muchos países, Se utiliza para alimentar al bebé con fórmula infantil, leche o agua azucarada de vaca en los primeros tres días de vida. Casi la mitad de todos los recién nacidos son alimentados con estos líquidos. Cuando los bebés reciben alternativas menos nutritivas a la leche materna, que maman con menos frecuencia, lo que hace más difícil para las madres a iniciar la lactancia materna y continuar.

No mundo todo, solamente 43% Los bebés menores de seis meses de edad son amamantados en forma exclusiva. Los bebés que no son amamantados tienen 14 veces más probabilidades de morir que los que son alimentados sólo con leche materna, según UNICEF. Sin embargo, cualquier cantidad de leche materna reduce el riesgo de muerte. Los bebés que no reciben leche materna tienen siete veces más probabilidades de morir de la infección que los que recibieron al menos una cierta cantidad de leche materna en los primeros seis meses de vida.

SMLM

La Semana Mundial de la Lactancia se celebra este año entre el 1 y 7 de agosto. La fecha se celebra desde 1992 por iniciativa de la Alianza Mundial pro Lactancia Materna (se convirtió en, el acrónimo), órgano asesor del Fondo de las Naciones Unidas (Unicef). Con el tema "La lactancia materna: una clave para el desarrollo sostenible "y el lema" La lactancia materna: Es bueno para su hijo, para ti y para el planeta ", ceremonia oficial alusiva la semana se llevará a cabo mañana (6), 11 a.m., Casa en Brasil los Juegos Olímpicos, en el Muelle Mauá, en Río de Janeiro.

fuente: Agencia Brasil

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